BRIDGER SCIENTIFIC heat transfer performance monitoring


This section contains a brief review of technical articles in the fouling field which may be of interest to researchers, engineers and others working in or educating themselves in the field of fouling. We have no affiliation with any of these organizations, but we do appreciate their efforts at furthering the understanding and technology in the field. We are unable to place the full report here as most of the articles are copyrighted, however there is a link at the end of each review to show you where you may find a complete copy. Please advise us if you are unable to find a complete article at the link so we can update our website. Please also advise us if you find or publish an article or technical literature which you feel would be appropriately listed on this site.


Demand Based Real Time Microbial Growth in Air Conditioning Cooling Water Systems
ASHRAE, 2003, Chattoraj of NALCO
This paper discusses a “water soluble biological activity sensor” which is added to the cooling tower cooling water. The flourescent signature of the molecule is changed as it interacts with planktonic and sessile bacteria in the water. A reference molecule is also added to the water. By continuous comparison at various frequencies biological activity in the water can be monitored. This complete paper should be available on line at the Nalco web site [Nalco_R-822.pdf].
How to Inspect, Maintain Chiller Barrels
ACHR News, 09/18/2000, Standard Refrigeration, Melrose Park IL
This paper has good practical insight into fouling issues experienced in the field for industrial and commercial chiller equipment. It is written at a practical level for maintenance personnel.
This complete paper should be available at or [chiller barrel maint]
Troubleshooting Problems in Heat Transfer Systems
Petro-Canada Lubricants, Ashman, 1998
This paper gives practical guidance on the design, operation and maintenance of heat exchangers and related equipment. It generally applies to process equipment using special heat transfer fluids instead of water, but the information is largely applicable for cooling water processes.
The complete paper may be available at
Tube Coating with Teflon
Corrview Maintenance Technical Bulletin M-11, 2004
This paper outlines the method and merits of their procedure for coating airconditioning chiller tubes exposed to cooling tower water, with a thin coat of teflon polymer to inhibit fouling and corrosion. Apparently they have had good success with the technique. They outline numerous details which must be addressed for a successful application, and the benefits of such an application in operation and maintenance.
The complete paper is available at
Ionics RO_UF Pilot Study
Ionics, 2000,
This paper discusses the reuse of waster water effluent for water make up at a natural gas turbine fired power plant in Lodi California. The 8 year operating history of the RO membranes and their life cycle costs and benefits are described.
The complete paper is available at
Osomonis NO_NF_RF Pilot Test
Osmonics, 2001
Osmonics paper discussing experiences of pilot plant membrane treatment on oil and gas produced water The water is used at the site to enhance oil recovery of the formation through brine reinjection with careful parameter control to avoid clogging (fouling) the oil field.
Geothermal power fouling control related patent
6,223,535 Kitz May 1, 2001
This patent describes a technique to remove boron from a portion of geothermal power plant steam turbine condensate in order to permit the remaining cooling water to have a sufficiently low concentration to be used for irrigation or other purposes.
Modeling Particle Deposition on HVAC Heat Exchangers
UC Berkely Dept. of Mech. Engineering, Siegel and Nazaroff, 2002
This paper develops a degradation model for particulate fouling on the exterior finned surfaces of HVAC heat exchanger tubes and its impact on performance. [HVAC Heat Exchange Fouling]
Environmental Protection Agency Table of Microbiocides and their Application
Non Chemical Technologies for Scale & Hardness Control
US DOE/EE-0162
This paper was prepared as a “Federal Technology Alert” to objectively describe various magnetic water treatment devices on the market at the time and the range of their potential application. A good portion of the report describes case studies and the savings forecast for various federal facilities.
[Nonchemical foul control DOE]
Basic Construction of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Wolverine Engineering Databook II, Phong Van, 2001
The reference book put out by this heat exchanger manufacturer is an excellent general overview of the materials, equipment and design features of common shell and tube heat exchangers. It should be available from the company or via their website. [wolverine heat transfer databook]

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